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Sample Citations for the Literature Cited Section


Villa, J. D. 1972. Anfibios de Nicaragua: Introducción a su sistemática, vida y costumbres. Managua, Nicaragua: Instituto Geográfico Nacional & Banco Central de Nicaragua.

Article in a Book

Palmer, A. R. 2005. Antisymmetry. Pp. 359-398 in: B. Hallgrimsson and B. K. Hall, editors. Variation: a Central Concept in Biology. Amsterdam: Academic Press.

Journal Article

Broadley, D. G., and V. Wallach. 1996. A remarkable new worm snake (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae) from the East African coast. Copeia 1996: 162–166.


Savage, J. M. 1950. Two new blind snakes (genus Typhlops) from the Philippine Islands. Proceedings of the California Zoological Club 1: 49–54.

Dissertation or Thesis

Wagner, P. 2010. Diversity and distribution of African lizards. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Bonn, Germany, University of Bonn.

Volume from a Book Series

Sarasin, P., and F. Sarasin. 1887-1890. Ergebnisse naturwissenschaftlicher forschungen auf Ceylon in den Jahren 1884-1886. Vol. 2. Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte und Anatomie der Ceylonesischen blindwühle Ichthyophis glutinosus, L. Wiesbaden, Germany: C .W. Kreidel's Verlag. 252 pp.


AmphibiaWeb [amphibian biology and conservation web application]. Berkeley, California: University of California, Berkeley; c.2000-2006 [cited 5 January 2007]. Available from:


Maynard, C. J. 1913a [January]. Descriptions of some species of the family Cerionidae. Records of Walks and Talks with Nature, 5 (Appendix): 117-182.

Text Figures, Plates, and Maps

Maynard, C. J. 1919a [October 16]. Contributions to the history of the Cerionidae with descriptions of many new species and notes on evolution in birds and plants. Records of Walks and Talks with Nature, 10(1, Appendix): 1-24, text figs. 1-3, pls. 5, 6.


Turner, R. D. 1957. Charles Johnson Maynard and his work in malacology. Occasional Papers on Mollusks, 2(21): 137-152, portrait.

Published by Institutions

ICZN. 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, Fourth ed. London: The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature. xxix + 306 pp.

Sample Citations Within Text

For comparisons and future phylogenetic studies species sequences were submitted to GenBank ( and are available under accession numbers C. setipes (Bandala 4085) JF930643, C. setipes (Bandala 4031) JF930641 and C. podocarpi (Bandala 4333) JF930647. .

Superscripts in Author Affiliations

Use superscripted numbers to match individual authors with their corresponding affiliations.

Affiliation superscripts for multiple authors go outside the comma after the author's name, with no space between the comma and the first superscript. Multiple superscripts after an individual author's name are separated by commas but not spaces and not as ranges: A. E. Mendez,1,2,3 Josia Quincy,2,4 and Ezra Spike4. The superscript numbers for the affiliatioin are roman and are placed (raised) before the first word of the affiliation.